Sunday, 12 July 2020

Urine Odor

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4 Healthy Urination Habits
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Urine Odor Reason

You are going about your day happily until you relieve yourself of strange smelly urine. Maybe it’s extra pungent or fishy, but having a weird smell emanating as you urinate can be freaky. There are some perfectly logical and totally harmless causes of urine odor. However, some causes may be more serious than the other.

10 Strong Urine Odor And Cloudy Reasons

  1. Dehydration – Staying hydrated is essential for proper body functions. By urinating, your body gets rid of body waste. Dehydration is one of the most common causes of smelly urine. If you are dehydrated, the colour of your urine will appear dark honey or brown with a strong pungent ammonia-like odour. When this happens, your body is telling you to re-hydrate with water and salt.
  2. Food – What you eat can sometimes be the cause of smelly urine. Foods such as asparagus, onions, garlic, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, alcohol and even coffee can cause changes to the colour and smell of urine. However, odour caused by food is nothing to be worried about.
  3. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) – If you are taking frequent trips to the washroom, have a burning sensation as you pee, and your urine smells funny as well, the chances are that you may have a urinary tract infection. This is the result of bacteria entering the urinary tract; the bladder and the urethra. UTIs are common but can become serious. See a doctor if symptoms do not ease on their own as antibiotics may be necessary.
  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) – Diseases such as gonorrhoea, chancroid, chlamydia and trichomoniasis can cause urethritis – inflammation of the urethra. The inflammation can cause bacteria to build up, making your pee smelly. 
  5. Pre-diabetes or diabetes – If your urine smells sweet or fruity, you may be pre-diabetic or diabetic. When you have high blood sugar content, your body will get rid of it through urine, causing it to smell sweet. In diabetic and prediabetic condition, yeast flourishes giving rise to candidiasis – yeast infection. 
  6. Kidney stones – Does your pee smell like rotten eggs? This could be a sign of kidney stones. Cloudy may be red, pink or brown and the pungent smell is caused sulphur found in kidney stones. Kidney stones collect bacteria leading to infection and bleeding. 
  7. Vitamin B – Excess of Vitamin B complex causes smelly urine. Your body does not store Vitamin B beyond its requirement. If there is an excess of it then your body will flush it out. 
  8. Bladder fistula – Fistula is an abnormal connection between urinary bladder and intestine. When this happens bacteria from the intestines move into the bladder causing urine to smell of stool. This can cause recurrent UTIs. 
  9. Liver – Liver diseases can cause urine to smell of ammonia. The liver is responsible for flushing toxins out of our body similar to kidneys. Any kind of infection of the liver produces a high level of ammonia along with a pungent odour of urine. 
  10. Genetic conditions – Phenylketonuria, an incurable genetic condition that causes urine to smell musky. Another genetic disease is Maple syrup urine disease – it is a rare genetic condition where urine smells like maple syrup.

4 Healthy Urination Habits

The following are 4 good habits to keep your bladder healthy.

  1. Urinate five to seven times per day. If you aren’t going that much, then you need to drink more water.
  2. Only urinate when you really need to — not “just in case,” except before bedtime. Forced urination trains your bladder to hold less.
  3. Sit down instead of hovering over the toilet while urinating.
  4. Take your time and don’t push to get the urine out faster.

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have a strong or abnormal urine odor that lasts for more than two days or if you have symptoms such as:

These symptoms may be signs of diabetes, severe dehydration, or liver disease.

Author: Dr Suresh Agrawal, an alumnus of Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, has been practicing in Colaba since 1981.

You May Also Interest To Read; Prostate Cancer

All material copyright healthcare nt sickcare. 2017 – 2020. Terms and conditions & Privacy Policy of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: This article inspired from various online articles and our own offline experiences. The content meant for public awareness and regular post to the clientele of healthcare nt sickcare.


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Saturday, 11 July 2020

Prostate Cancer

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What Are The Complications Of Prostate Cancer?
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What is Prostate Cancer?

The prostate is a gland of the male reproductive system, located directly under your bladder. This gland consists of tiny other glands that produce a fluid that is a part of the semen. Prostate cancer begins when the cells present in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably. Cancer starts with tiny changes in the shape and size of the prostate gland cells- known as Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN).

Prostate cancer is a very slow progressing disease. In most cases, patients do not realize that they are suffering from this condition. When the cancerous tissues start spreading or there is a serious life risk, one may need to undergo prostate cancer surgery. There are various types of surgery that can be performed for treatment such as radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy, or modern laparoscopic techniques.

What Are The 4 Stages of Prostate Cancer?

The 4 stages of prostate cancer are:

  • Stage 1: In this stage, cancers are small and grow gradually. Though they are within the prostate, not be able to detect during a physical examination. This stage may not bring out any symptoms or other health issues.
  • Stage 2: In this stage, the cancers in the prostate can be felt by the doctor as they are larger than the stage one cancer. The two types of cancers in stage 2 are 2a and 2b. 2a cancers can be T1 tumors with high PSA or T2 or T2b with lower PSA. 2b cancers can be T2c tumors or T2a or T2b with higher PSA.
  • Stage 3: Now at this stage, the cancers have grown outside the prostate very fast. They may have reached the seminal vesicles that not the rectum or bladder. This stage of cancer is mostly returnable after the treatment.
  • Stage 4: This is a metastasize stage. It is likely to spread to nearby organs such as the rectum, bladder, or nearby lymph nodes. Distant organs such as bones may also be affected. Mostly, this stage is not curable.

What Are The Early Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer?

This serious ailment affects middle-aged or older people and especially over 65 years old men are more prone to prostate cancer. Men in the early stage do not have any symptoms. The possible changes occur as follows :

  1. Difficulty in urinating or emptying the entire urinary bladder
  2. Dribbling urine even after complete urination
  3. Sudden urgency to urinate

When the cancer advances (metastasize), the symptoms are:

  1. Bloody urine or semen
  2. Severer back or pelvic pain
  3. Unintentional weight loss
  4. Problems in erection
  5. Numbness in the feet, hip or leg

What Are The Treatment Options For Prostate Cancer?

While treating the early stage of prostate cancer, the problems faced by the patients will be more than the disease itself. It is always recommended for active surveillance or watchful waiting. During active surveillance, the cancer is monitored very closely for any sign worsening. When cancer found to be worsening, the treatment will be immediately started.

In surgery, the prostate gland and the surrounding tissues and lymph nodes are removed. This is called Radical prostatectomy. It is done in two ways such as robotic and incision.

High-power energy is given through radiation to kill the cancer cells. In prostate cancer, it is given in two forms such as external beam radiation and brachytherapy.

In hormone therapy, medicines will be given to stop the body from producing testosterone. The growth of cancer cells die or come down gradually when cutting down the production of testosterone.

What Are The Conditions For A Prostate Cancer Surgery?

A patient may require a prostate cancer surgery in the following conditions:

  • The age, general health, and stage of cancer determine whether a patient would need surgery or not
  • For removing the cancerous tissues
  • Treating localized prostate cancer, which involves removing the entire prostate and the surrounding tissues, including lymph nodes if necessary
  • If cancer has reached the outer layer of the prostate and is spreading in the seminal vesicles
  • When the cancer is spreading to the other parts of the body. It could be to the nearby lymph nodes, and other organs like rectum, bladder, or the pelvis.

What Are Procedures For The Prostate Cancer Surgery?

Pre Procedure For The Prostate Cancer Surgery

Before surgery, you may have to undergo a cystoscopy so that the doctor can examine your prostate size and urinary system. Other tests for measuring your prostate and urine flow will also need to be conducted. Apart from this, there are certain instructions that need to be followed:

  • Inform your doctor of all the medications that you are take and see if you need to stop taking any of them before the surgery. For example, you may be advised to stop medicines that can increase the risk of bleeding during the surgery.
  • You may have to stop drinking and eating anything from the midnight on the day of your surgery. In case you need to take any medication, make sure you have it with very little sips of water.
  • An enema may be required to be done prior to the surgery. Enema is a procedure for cleansing the bowel before a medical examination or surgery.
During Prostate Cancer Surgery Procedure

Prostate cancer surgery can be done in two ways. The main type is known as radical prostatectomy. There are a further two ways to perform this operation. One is radical retropubic prostatectomy, where the surgeon makes a cut in the lower abdomen. You will be administered general or epidural anesthesia. The prostate gland and the nearby tissues will then be removed. In case there is a possibility that cancer has spread to the lymph nodes nearby, the surgeon may remove them too during the surgery.

The second type is the radical perineal prostatectomy, where the incision is made in the skin between your anus and scrotum. The lymph nodes cannot be removed in this case. This surgery requires less time, causes less pain, and has a faster recovery period. However, there are possibilities of erection problems in patients undergoing this surgery.

There are laparoscopic approaches too for conducting a prostate cancer surgery where much smaller incisions and long surgical tools are used for removing the prostate.

Post Prostate Cancer Surgery Procedure

After the surgery has been performed, a catheter is placed in the penis so that the bladder can be drained. You need to keep the catheter for 1-2 weeks. Depending on your condition, the doctors will decide if you can be discharged in a day or if you need to spend a few more days in the hospital. You will be instructed on handling the catheter and caring for the surgical site before you go home.

The incision site can be sore for a few days. There may be other problems like blood in the urine, urinary irritation, difficulty in holding urine, urinary tract infection (UTI), and inflammation of the prostate. These symptoms are normal and will be there for a few weeks post-surgery. It is advised to decrease your activity levels for the time being, including sex.

Life Expectancy After Prostate Surgery

Prostate cancer surgery success rate

When it comes to the treatment, prostate cancer surgery success rate varies. According to a reference paper, patients with their chosen treatment (i.e., surgery, radiation or watchful waiting/active surveillance)Patients expected to live:

  • Fewer than five years – 3 percent
  • Five to 10 years – 9 percent
  • 10 to 20 years – 33 percent
  • More than 20 years – 55 percent

What Are The Complications Of Prostate Cancer?

  1. Incontinence: Both the prostate tumor and its treatment can lead to urinary incontinence. Patients with urinary incontinence start to lose bladder control and may leak urine or not be able to control during urination.
  2. Erectile dysfunction: The nerves that are responsible for erection are located close to the prostate gland. A tumor or treatments such as radiation or surgery can damage such weak nerves. At last, this may ultimately lead to achieving or maintaining an erection.
  3. Metastasis: This type of cancer spreads mostly to all parts of the body and leads to complications such as weakness in legs and arms, spinal cord compression that ultimately leads to urinary incontinence, muscle weakness, stiffness in the neck, thigh, broken bones and severe pain in the spinal cord.

What Are The Long Term Effects Of Prostate Cancer?

There is a small risk of developing second cancer near or in the radiation field which is called secondary cancer. Since the healthy tissues are targeted to the radiation, secondary cancer can develop. Though modern radiation limits exposure, it is not always possible to protect all the healthy cells.

After the radiation treatment, most of the men turn sterile. It is always advisable to store sperms in sperm banking for the future child. In Internal radiotherapy, proctitis is being a long-term effect. This condition creates a feeling of straining whether you actually need to pass poop or not. Mucous discharge and bleeding may also occur from the rectum.

How Long Does It Take To Recover After Prostate Cancer Surgery?

As a surgery for prostate cancer is a major surgery, it is important that you give your body some time to recover. Take adequate rest while recuperating at home, and refrain from lifting any heavy objects for a few weeks. It is also recommended to avoid driving in the first few days. It can take about 6-7 weeks to feel normal again. Make sure that you take your medicines in time and follow the instructions of your doctor, including any lifestyle changes that you need to make.

What Is The approximate Cost Of Prostate Cancer Surgery in India?

The cost of a prostate cancer surgery in India could be approximately Rs. 3,14,972 – Rs. 4,50,000.

Foods To Avoid After Prostate Cancer

Foods to avoid after prostate cancer are:

  • Fat: Decent amount of fat needs by the body to work properly. And yet, eating a lot of will put the weight that expands the danger of forceful or propelled prostate disease. Having vegetable oils instead of animal fats seems to increase the longevity of men with prostate cancer.
  • Calcium and dairy nourishments: It has been accounted for that eating a great deal of calcium may expand the threat of prostate malignant growth is developing and spreading. It is advised to consume 2000 mg of calcium per day that is enough to keep your bone healthily.
  • Alcohol: Regular and large amounts of alcohol intake increases prostate cancer’s risk. Instead of alcohol, men may consume sparkling juices, non-alcoholic wines or beers, fresh fruit juice, and tea.
  • Trans fatty acids: These are known to advance cancer growth. Margarine, fried and baked foods are rich in trans fatty acids.

The Best Exercise For People Having Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer exercises;

  • Prior to surgery, you can do Kegel works out. Rests or sit in a seat dependent on your solace level, contact your pelvis on the floor for in any event 10-seconds and pursued by a 10-second rest. Repeat the same for five minutes. Play out this activity at any rate three times each day until you go for surgery.
  • After surgery with the advice of your doctor start with a subtle contraction when you are lying down. Hold the contraction posture for 3 seconds, relax for 15 seconds. Continue it for five repetitions three times a day. Perform the same by sitting or standing in the next step. Start with a five-second hold and relax 15 seconds.

Prostate Cancer Test in Pune

Home Remedies For Prostate Cancer
  • Green tea holds Catechins (antioxidants) that are abundant in the product. It shows an improved immune system and potentially slows down the progression of prostate cancer.
  • Lycopene is a pigment that can naturally be found in fruits and vegetables. It has been reported that Lycopene helps in slowing the progression of benign prostate cancer. Eating Lycopene-rich tomatoes is advised to decrease growth.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids have the tendency of fighting against inflammation and thus fight against prostate cancer. Salmon and Mackerel fish contain more omega 3 fatty acids.
  • Stinging nettle contains antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds and these are essential to battle against prostate cancer.

Reference: Lybrate

You May Also Interest To Read; Depression in Men

All material copyright healthcare nt sickcare. 2017 – 2020. Terms and conditions & Privacy Policy of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: This article inspired from various online articles and our own offline experiences. The content meant for public awareness and regular post to the clientele of healthcare nt sickcare.


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Friday, 10 July 2020

Stool Calprotectin Test

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Stool Calprotectin Test

Calprotectin is a stool (fecal) test that is used to detect inflammation in the intestines and digestive system. Intestinal inflammation is associated with bacterial infections and in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Signs and symptoms of IBD will vary from person to person and over time. They may include one or more of the following;

Why Stool Test For Calprotectin Advised?

Stool test for calprotectin is generally prescribed by doctors when they suspect irritable bowel syndrome in their patients. Calprotectin tests are useful in distinguishing between IBD and non-inflammatory bowel condition. Determination of the levels of fecal calprotectin is also useful in pediatrics and neonatology High sensitivity and specificity of calprotectin makes it more reliable for detecting bowel information in infants and newborns.

Stool Sample For Calprotectin Test

There is no specific test preparation that is to be taken before the collection of the sample. The stool sample is collected in a clean container provided either by the laboratory or you can buy it from medical stores. This sample should be uncontaminated by urine or water. The sample should be taken to our laboratory for testing and it may take a few days before results are available.

Calprotectin Test Result

The stool sample taken is tested for calprotectin levels. Calprotectin is released by neutrophils which is a type of white blood cell. When there is inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, neutrophils move to the area and release calprotectin which results in an increased level of the protein in the stool. This test measures the calprotectin levels in the stool to detect inflammation in the intestines.

The results of a calprotectin test are generally given as a single number. This number will be compared against the cut-off value for the calprotectin test. If the number is below the cut-off value, it is considered to be at normal levels. If the levels are above the cut-off value, it is considered as positive and abnormal. The fecal calprotectin test may be repeated if the level is near the cutoff value at a later date.

Calprotectin Stool Test

Calprotectin Stool Test Limitations: False-negative results could occur in patients who have granulocytopenia due to bone marrow depression.


  • Overnight fasting, not required
  • Doctor’s prescription may be required
  • Previous medical report and test history may be needed
  • The normal reference range may vary depending on age, health history, etc.
  • Read FAQ
  • False-negative results could occur in patients who have granulocytopenia due to bone marrow depression.
  • No Home Visit Collection Facility For Calprotectin Test. You have to drop the sample at the lab during working hours.

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T3 T4 Test

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T3 & T4 Total

Total Thyroid hormone levels include protein-bound levels and are affected by abnormalities in thyroid hormone-binding protein like Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG). TBG is increased due to the effect of estrogens like pregnancy, oral contraceptives & Tamoxifen therapy. TBG is decreased due to the effect of excessive androgens and Nephrotic syndrome. In addition, genetic disorders, acute illness, various drugs can all affect thyroid hormone binding. Hence assays that measure unbound or free hormones are preferable than total thyroid hormones.

Why T3 T4 Test Advised?

Indications of undergoing t3 and t4 test:

  • Menstrual disturbances
  • Unexplained hair fall
  • Unexplained weight changes
  • Digestive disturbances
  • Loss of sleep or excessive sleepiness
  • Past history of thyroid disorders
  • Recent thyroid surgery

Disturbances in the levels of either of these hormones are suggestive of underlying pathology.

  • T3 Test – It is one of the hormones synthesized by the thyroid gland using iodine. T3 is responsible for controlling metabolism, digestive functions, the functioning of the female reproductive cycle, etc. Normal levels of Serum T3 are 80-180 ng/dL.
  • T4 Test – T4 is the other hormone produced by the thyroid gland, alongside T3. It is responsible for maintaining the healthy functioning of cerebral tissue and cardiac tissue. Normal levels of Serum T4 are 4.6-12 micrograms/dL.
  • TSH Test – TSH is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pituitary gland. It controls the release of T3 and T4 hormones, thus allowing the thyroid gland to function normally. Normal levels of TSH are 0.4-4.0 mIU/ml.

How the T3 T4 Test Performed?

A venous blood sample is required for performing a thyroid test. Patients may be asked to observe an overnight fast for 6-8 hours before their blood sample is collected. Therefore, doctors usually advise patients to undergo thyroid tests early in the morning. Complete overnight fasting not compulsory for thyroid hormone tests.

T3 T4 Blood Test Result

Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, Grave’s disease, are some disorders that can be diagnosed with the help of Thyroid test results. Additional diagnostic tests that may be prescribed along with thyroid blood tests include.

T3 T4 Blood Test For Female

Other than the above-mentioned health conditions, the thyroid test is a part of the mandatory blood tests advised to pregnant women. Women who have no thyroid troubles before pregnancy often tend to develop complaints during pregnancy. Regular monitoring of thyroid hormone levels is essential during pregnancy.

Thyroid hormones control several metabolic functions like menstruation, digestion, cardiac activity. Patients suffering from disorders of any of these systems need to undergo thyroid tests at regular intervals.

Other than checking for levels of thyroid hormones, patients may also be asked to undergo tests for autoimmune thyroid disorders. These tests include checking for anti-thyroid antibodies and other factors.

Abnormal results of thyroid tests should be promptly reported to an endocrinologist. It is imperative that medical treatment is started immediately to avoid health complications.

T3 T4 Test For Thyroid


  • Overnight fasting may be advised by your doctor
  • Doctor’s prescription may be required
  • Previous medical report and test history may be needed
  • The normal reference range may vary depending on gender, age, health history, etc.
  • Read FAQ

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Androstenedione Test

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Androstenedione Test

Androstenedione is a C-19 (19 carbon atoms) steroid hormone found in men as well as in premenopausal women. Androstenedione is a steroid sex hormone which originates in the gonads, with a minor contribution from the adrenal glands (1.5-3 mg/day); in postmenopausal women, the adrenal gland constitutes the major source of this hormone. This test is used when steroid abuse is suspected and also when women are suspected of virilizing syndromes i.e. a condition where females develop male sexual characteristics due to high testosterone levels in them.

What is Androstenedione Test?

Androstenedione test is an automated blood test to measure the level of Androstenedione in our blood. It is performed to confirm various cases of Amenorrhea, Hirsutism, Infertility, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Even during and after the treatment of Amenorrhea, Hirsutism, Infertility, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome; this test is useful. This test is done under various names such as Androstenedione (A4) Blood, 4- Androstenedione, Serum A4 Blood, Androstenedione (A4), Serum A4. Androstenedione is secret mainly by the adrenal gland and production is partially controlled by the ACTH hormone. Androstenedione is a main sex- steroid antecedent.

Serum Androstenedione Test Result

The normal values for the Androstenedione test will give Androstenedione > 100 ng/dl for the female gender of all age groups. Increased test levels indicate an increase in adrenal or gonadal androgen production. Mildly increased levels in adults are usually idiopathic or show association with conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women and the use of androstenedione supplements in men and women. However, values greater than or equal to 500 ng/dL can suggest the presence of an androgen-secreting adrenal more commonly known as gonadal-tumor.

Why Androstenedione Test Advised?

The test helps diagnose the causes of high testosterone (male sex hormone) in women, routine health screenings, and suspected disease or toxicity. To see the progress of a medication or treatment plan. Suspected cases of virilizing syndromes in women suspected anabolic steroid abuse may be used along with 17-OH progesterone to diagnose CAH Management of CAH.

Common diagnoses and symptoms that are associated with androstenedione are early puberty, a virilizing syndrome in females, and relapse of the menstrual cycle in post-menopausal women.

Androstenedione Blood Test


  • Overnight fasting may not be required
  • Doctor’s prescription
  • Previous medical report and test history may be needed
  • The normal reference range may vary depending on gender, age, health history, etc.
  • Read FAQ

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Anti Cardiolipin Antibodies Test

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Cardiolipin Antibodies Test

Anti Cardiolipin Antibodies Test – Anticardiolipin antibodies are related to thrombocytopenia, recurrent miscarriages, and premature labor and preeclampsia. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are adopted autoantibodies against cardiolipins. Created by the immune system, they are against their own cells, tissues, and organs and attack them causing inflammation & damage.

They increase the patient’s risk of developing recurrent unfitting blood clots in the blood vessels. Cardiolipin antibodies are also associated with thrombocytopenia, recurrent miscarriages, and premature labor and preeclampsia. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified as IgA; IgG; IgM

Why Anti Cardiolipin Antibodies Blood Test Advised?

The Anticardiolipin Antibodies test detects the cardiolipin antibodies IgA/ IgG/ IgM existence which is an essential process in the body’s ability to regulate blood clotting.

It helps diagnose an incongruous blood clot which may cause recurrent miscarriages, thrombocytopenia, unexplained thrombotic episode, a prolonged PTT (activated partial thromboplastin time), hemolytic anemia, thrombotic microangiopathy, SLE or other autoimmune disorders.

Reason To Do Anti Cardiolipin Antibodies Test

Symptoms observed in this scenario are recurrent unexplained thrombotic episodes, pain and swelling due to the thrombotic episodes in the extremities, shortness of breath, headaches, and recurrent miscarriages during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters.

Anticardiolipin Antibody Test

Anticardiolipin Antibodies IgG And IgM


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Antiphospholipid Antibody Test

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Anti Phospholipid Antibody Test

Antiphospholipid Antibody Test – Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) are a group of autoantibodies that bind to negatively charged phospholipids. Antiphospholipid antibodies have been associated with thrombotic events which could lead to pregnancy loss, venous and arterial thrombosis, and thrombocytopenia. Antiphospholipid antibodies prevent the blood to flow properly resulting in blood clots causing a health risk to both the mother and the baby. Some important types of phospholipid antibodies are;

  • anticardiolipin
  • antinuclear
  • lupus antibodies

What Is Phospholipid?

A phospholipid is a type of lipid molecule with a phosphate group that forms a major part of the cell membrane. Each Phospholipid constitutes two fatty acids one is the phosphate group and the other is the glycerol molecule. Phospholipid line themselves up in two parallel layers called Phospholipid bilayer and make up the cell membrane. The phospholipid is crucial to the cell’s ability to function.

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder where the Antiphospholipid Antibodies attack the proteins that aid the binding of phospholipids to the plasma membrane. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome is more common in young women than men.

What Are The Symptoms Of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrom?

The common Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome symptoms are as follows;

  • Blood clots in the legs
  • Repeated miscarriages or stillbirths
  • Stroke
  • Rash
  • Transitory Ischemic Attack

Few of the less common Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome symptoms are;

What Cause Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrom?

The primary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome cause includes underlying health conditions like an autoimmune disorder, infection, and reaction to certain kinds of medications.

Other risk factors to Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome are;

  • Infections like Syphilis, HIV/AIDS, Lyme disease
  • Lupus Erythematosus
  • Genetics

Why Antiphospholipid Antibody Test Advised?

Symptoms concerned with the antiphospholipid antibody are associated with shortness of breath, migraine headaches, deep vein thrombosis, stroke, heart attack, recurrent unexplained venous or arterial blood clots, recurrent unexplained thrombotic episodes, pain and swelling due to the thrombotic episodes, recurrent miscarriages, especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, stillbirth, placental insufficiency, implantation failure, increased rates of IVF failure.

Antiphospholipid Antibodies Test

The antiphospholipid antibody test detects increased levels of various antibodies. The process helps detect any particular set of specimens. It is an essential process in the body’s ability to regulate the clotting of blood. antiphospholipid antibody test helps diagnose the reasons for recurrent miscarriage; asses or monitor a prolonged PTT (partial thromboplastin time) or assess the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.


  • Overnight fasting may not be required
  • Doctor’s prescription may be needed
  • The normal reference range may vary depending on gender, age, health history, etc.

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