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Tuesday, 3 December 2019

Pancreatitis | Pancreatic Cancer | 8 Pancreas Diseases List

Pancreatitis | Pancreatic Cancer | 8 Pancreas Diseases List: Pancreatitis - Pancreas Components, Pancreas Functions, Pancreas Disorders, Pancreas Problems, Pancreas Blood Test, Pancreatitis Diagnosis Methods





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Pancreas -
Pancreatitis, Functions And Common Disorders

8 Common Disorders of the Pancreas

What are the
Types of Pancreas Function Tests?


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Sunday, 1 December 2019

Allergy


Allergy test - Booking Blood Test For Allergies. Veg Food Allergies, Non-Veg Food Allergies, Drug Allergies, Contact Allergies, Inhalant Allergies, Skin Allergy


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Wednesday, 27 November 2019


Autism Spectrum Disorders

What is Autism?
Autism spectrum disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. The term "spectrum" in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity.

Autism spectrum disorder includes conditions that were previously considered separate autism, Asperger's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and an unspecified form of pervasive developmental disorder. Some people still use the term "Asperger's syndrome," which is generally thought to be at the mild end of autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorder begins in early childhood and eventually causes problems functioning in society socially, in school and at work, for example. Often children show symptoms of autism within the first year. A small number of children appear to develop normally in the first year, and then go through a period of regression between 18 and 24 months of age when they develop autism symptoms.

While there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, intensive, early treatment can make a big difference in the lives of many children.

What Are the Types of Autism Spectrum Disorders?


Earlier experts talked about different types of autism, such as autistic disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). But now they are all called “autism spectrum disorders.”

If you still listen to doctor’s community and people use some of the older terms, you may want to know what they mean. Let’s us explain;

1.       Asperger's syndrome. This is on the milder end of the autism spectrum. A person with Asperger's may be very intelligent and able to handle her daily life. She may be really focused on topics that interest her and discuss them nonstop. But she has a much harder time socially.
2.       Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). This mouthful of a diagnosis included most children whose autism was more severe than Asperger's syndrome, but not as severe as autistic disorder.
3.       Autistic disorder. This older term is further along the autism spectrum than Asperger’s and PDD-NOS. It includes the same types of symptoms, but at a more intense level.
4.       Childhood disintegrative disorder. This was the rarest and most severe part of the spectrum. It described children who develop normally and then quickly lose many social, language, and mental skills, usually between ages 2 and 4. Often, these children also developed a seizure disorder.

Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Social behavior and social understanding
Basic social interaction can be difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders. Symptoms may include;
  • Unusual or inappropriate body language, gestures, and facial expressions (e.g. avoiding eye contact or using facial expressions that don’t match what he or she is saying)
  • Lack of interest in other people or in sharing interests or achievements (e.g. showing you a drawing, pointing to a bird)
  • Unlikely to approach others or to pursue social interaction; comes across as aloof and detached; prefers to be alone
  • Difficulty understanding other people’s feelings, reactions, and nonverbal cues
  • Resistance to being touched
  • Difficulty or failure to make friends with children the same age

Speech and language

Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder struggle with speech and language comprehension. Symptoms may include;
  • Delay in learning how to speak (after the age of two) or doesn’t talk at all
  • Speaking in an abnormal tone of voice, or with an odd rhythm or pitch
  • Repeating words or phrases over and over without communicative intent
  • Trouble starting a conversation or keeping it going
  • Difficulty communicating needs or desires
  • Doesn’t understand simple statements or questions
  • Taking what is said too literally, missing humour, irony, and sarcasm

Restricted behavior and play

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often restricted, rigid, and even obsessive in their behaviors, activities, and interests. Symptoms may include;
  • Repetitive body movements (hand flapping, rocking, spinning); moving constantly
  • Obsessive attachment to unusual objects (rubber bands, keys, light switches)
  • Preoccupation with a narrow topic of interest, sometimes involving numbers or symbols (maps, license plates, sports statistics)
  • A strong need for sameness, order, and routines (e.g. lines up toys, follows a rigid schedule). Gets upset by change in their routine or environment.
  • Clumsiness, abnormal posture, or odd ways of moving
  • Fascinated by spinning objects, moving pieces, or parts of toys (e.g. spinning the wheels on a race car, instead of playing with the whole car)
  • Hyper- or hypo-reactive to sensory input (e.g. reacts badly to certain sounds or textures, seeming indifference to temperature or pain)

Sensory problems 

Many children with autism spectrum disorders either underreact or overreact to sensory stimuli. At times they may ignore people speaking to them, even to the point of appearing deaf. However, at other times they may be disturbed by even the softest sounds. Sudden noises such as a ringing telephone can be upsetting, and they may respond by covering their ears and making repetitive noises to drown out the offending sound. Children on the autism spectrum also tend to be highly sensitive to touch and to texture. They may cringe at a pat on the back or the feel of certain fabric against their skin.

Emotional difficulties

Children with autism spectrum disorders may have difficulty regulating their emotions or expressing them appropriately. For instance, your child may start to yell, cry, or laugh hysterically for no apparent reason. When stressed, he or she may exhibit disruptive or even aggressive behavior (breaking things, hitting others, or harming him or herself). The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities also notes that kids with ASD may be unfazed by real dangers like moving vehicles or heights, yet be terrified of harmless objects such as a stuffed animal.

Uneven cognitive abilities
ASD occurs at all intelligence levels. However, even kids with normal to high intelligence often have unevenly developed cognitive skills. Not surprisingly, verbal skills tend to be weaker than nonverbal skills. In addition, children with Autism spectrum disorder typically do well on tasks involving immediate memory or visual skills, while tasks involving symbolic or abstract thinking are more difficult.

When to consult a doctor if you have doubt your child has autism?

Babies develop at their own pace, and many don't follow exact timelines found in some parenting books. But children with autism spectrum disorder usually show some signs of delayed development before age 2 years.

If you're concerned about your child's development or you suspect that your child may have autism spectrum disorder, discuss your concerns with your child’s doctor. The symptoms associated with the disorder can also be linked with other developmental disorders.

Signs of autism spectrum disorder often appear early in development when there are obvious delays in language skills and social interactions. Your doctor may recommend developmental tests to identify if your child has delays in cognitive, language and social skills, if your child;
  1. Doesn't respond with a smile or happy expression by 6 months
  2. Doesn't mimic sounds or facial expressions by 9 months
  3. Doesn't babble or coo by 12 months
  4. Doesn't gesture — such as point or wave — by 14 months
  5. Doesn't say single words by 16 months
  6. Doesn't play "make-believe" or pretend by 18 months
  7. Doesn't say two-word phrases by 24 months
  8. Loses language skills or social skills at any age

 

Risk factors of Autism Spectrum Disorder

The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is rising. It's not clear whether this is due to better detection and reporting or a real increase in the number of cases, or both.
Autism spectrum disorder affects children of all races and nationalities, but certain factors increase a child's risk. These may include;
  • Your child's sex. Boys are about four times more likely to develop autism spectrum disorder than girls are.
  • Family history. Families who have one child with autism spectrum disorder have an increased risk of having another child with the disorder. It's also not uncommon for parents or relatives of a child with autism spectrum disorder to have minor problems with social or communication skills themselves or to engage in certain behaviors typical of the disorder.
  • Other disorders. Children with certain medical conditions have a higher than normal risk of autism spectrum disorder or autism-like symptoms. Examples include fragile X syndrome, an inherited disorder that causes intellectual problems; tuberous sclerosis, a condition in which benign tumors develop in the brain; and Rett syndrome, a genetic condition occurring almost exclusively in girls, which causes slowing of head growth, intellectual disability and loss of purposeful hand use.
  • Extremely preterm babies. Babies born before 26 weeks of gestation may have a greater risk of autism spectrum disorder.
  • Parents' ages. There may be a connection between children born to older parents and autism spectrum disorder, but more research is necessary to establish this link.

Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder


Autism spectrum disorder has no single known cause. Given the complexity of the disorder, and the fact that symptoms and severity vary, there are probably many causes. Both genetics and environment may play a role.
  • Genetics. Several different genes appear to be involved in autism spectrum disorder. For some children, autism spectrum disorder can be associated with a genetic disorder, such as Rett syndrome or fragile X syndrome. For other children, genetic changes (mutations) may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Still other genes may affect brain development or the way that brain cells communicate, or they may determine the severity of symptoms. Some genetic mutations seem to be inherited, while others occur spontaneously.
  • Environmental factors. Researchers are currently exploring whether factors such as viral infections, medications or complications during pregnancy, or air pollutants play a role in triggering autism spectrum disorder.

 

There is No link between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder

One of the greatest controversies in autism spectrum disorder centers on whether a link exists between the disorder and childhood vaccines. Despite extensive research, no reliable study has shown a link between autism spectrum disorder and any vaccines. In fact, the original study that ignited the debate years ago has been retracted due to poor design and questionable research methods.

Avoiding childhood vaccinations can place your child and others in danger of catching and spreading serious diseases, including whooping cough (pertussis), measles or mumps.

Read About: ADHD

All material copyright healthcare nt sickcare. 2017 – 2019. Terms and conditions & Privacy Policy of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: This article inspired from various online articles and our own offline experiences. The content meant for public awareness and regular post to the clientele of healthcare nt sickcare.
Credit vismithams.in


What is good bacteria? | 6 Best Sources of Good Bacteria % | Probiotics

What is good bacteria? | 6 Best Sources of Good Bacteria % | Probiotics: What Are Probiotics? What are the types of probiotics? Good Bacteria Can Prevent Food Allergy. Best Sources of Good Bacteria





What is
good bacteria?

Bacteria
have gotten a bad reputation, and for good reason. Bacteria are behind a number
of serious diseases — including pneumonia (
Streptococcus
pneumoniae
), meningitis (Haemophilus influenzae), strep throat (Group A Streptococcus), food poisoning (Escherichia coli and Salmonella), and a variety of other infections. 

These
“bad” bacteria are the reason why we diligently disinfect our hands and wipe
down our kitchen and bathroom sinks, as well as any other places where germs
tend to congregate. We also have developed a wide range of antibiotics, which
are drugs designed to kill the bacteria that cause disease. 

Yet,
not all bacteria are bad. In fact, our bodies are home to an estimated 100
trillion “good” bacteria, many of which reside in our gut. Not only do we
live in harmony with these beneficial bacteria, but they are actually essential
to our survival. 
Good
bacteria help our bodies digest food and absorb nutrients,
and they produce several vitamins
in the intestinal tract, including folic acid,
niacin, and vitamins
B6
and vitamin B12.
Beneficial bacteria may also protect us against their dangerous relatives that
cause disease by crowding them out in the gut, producing acids that inhibit
their growth, and stimulating the immune system to fight them off.

When
helpful bacteria multiply and thrive in our bodies, they act as our protectors.
But sometimes, we put the population of beneficial bacteria at risk. When we
take antibiotics
to treat an
infection
of harmful bacteria, we also kill helpful bacteria. This can
cause an imbalance of bacteria in the body that can lead to diarrhea and other
gastrointestinal problems.

What Are Probiotics?

Probiotics are
live bacteria and yeasts that are good for you, especially your digestive
system. We usually think of these as germs that cause diseases. But your body
is full of bacteria, both good and bad. Probiotics are often called
"good" or "helpful" bacteria because they help keep your
gut healthy.

You can
find probiotics in supplements and some foods, like yogurt. Doctors often
suggest them to help with digestive problems.

What are the types of probiotics?

Many
types of bacteria are classified as probiotics. They all have different benefits,
but most come from two groups. Ask your doctor about which might best help you.
  1. Lactobacillus. This may be the most
    common probiotic. It's the one you'll find in yogurt and other fermented
    foods. Different strains can help with diarrhea and
    may help people who can't digest lactose, the sugar in milk.
  2. Bifidobacterium. You can find it in
    some dairy products. It may help ease the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    and some other conditions.
  3. Saccharomyces boulardii is
    a yeast found in probiotics. It appears to help fight diarrhea and other
    digestive problems.

Good Bacteria Can Prevent Food Allergy

The
epidemic of food
allergy
is caused by the absence of certain beneficial bacteria in the
human gut.
The
number of Americans who suffer from food allergy has
risen sharply over the last decade to as many 32 million, according to one
recent estimate. Nearly 8 percent of children in the U.S. are
affected. One hypothesis is that factors like an increase c-sec births,
reduction in breastfeeding, a rise in sue of antibiotics and smaller family
sizes is disrupting the normal microbial balance in the gut. This is depriving
babies of the "
good" bacteria. It is this good bacteria that prepares the immune system to
recognize food as harmless.

Best Sources of Good Bacteria
Here
are some important healthy sources of good probiotics;

  1. Yogurt - one of the best sources of good bacteria. it has many
    other health benefits too. 
  2. Kefir - this is a fermented probiotic milk drink made by
    adding kefir grains to milk. it has many stains of good bacteria and
    yeast.
  3. Kombucha - this is a fermented black or green tea; fermented
    with good bacteria and yeast.
  4. Pickles - naturally fermented pickles are better than those
    fermented in vinegar. 
  5. Buttermilk - the leftover liquid while making butter is a very good
    probiotic. Iit also has important vitamins and minerals. 
  6. Soft
    cheese 
    -  not all cheese
    are good sources of probiotics but the ones in which the good bacteria
    survive the ageing process like mozzarella, gouda, cheddar and cottage
    cheese. 


All material copyright healthcare nt sickcare. 2017 –
2019. Terms and conditions & Privacy Policy of use. The contents herein are
for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or
other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a
medical condition. Source: This article inspired from various online articles
and our own offline experiences. The content meant for public awareness and
regular post to the clientele of healthcare nt sickcare.

Monday, 25 November 2019

13 Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder | What is ADHD?

13 Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder | What is ADHD?: What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Signs and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Causes of ADHD







What Is Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder?


Attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) affects children and teens and can continue into adulthood.
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children. Children with
ADHD may be hyperactive and unable control their impulses. Or they may have
trouble paying attention. These children behaviours interfere with school and
home life.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is
a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that can affect your child’s success at
school, as well as their relationships. The symptoms of ADHD vary and are
sometimes difficult to recognize. Many of the individual symptoms of ADHD can
be expected for any child to experience. So, to make a diagnosis of ADHD, your
child’s doctor will need to evaluate your child using several criteria.

ADHD is generally diagnosed in children by the
time they’re teenagers, with the average age of diagnosis being 7 years old.
Older children exhibiting symptoms may have ADHD, but they’ve often exhibited
rather elaborate symptoms early in life. It’s more common in boys than in
girls. It’s usually discovered during the early school years, when a child
begins to have problems paying attention. 

13 Symptoms of Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Self-focused behaviour

A common sign of ADHD is what looks like an
inability to recognize other people’s needs and desires. This can lead to the
next two signs: interrupting and trouble waiting their turn.

Interrupting

Self-focused behaviour may cause a child with ADHD
to interrupt others while they’re talking or butt into conversations or games
they’re not part of.

Trouble waiting their turn

Kids with ADHD may have trouble waiting their turn
during classroom activities or when playing games with other children.

Emotional turmoil

A child with ADHD may have trouble keeping their
emotions in check. They may have outbursts of anger at inappropriate times.
Younger children may have temper tantrums.

Fidgetiness

Children with ADHD often can’t sit still. They may
try to get up and run around, fidget, or squirm in their chair when forced to
sit.

Problems playing quietly

Fidgetiness can make it difficult for kids with
ADHD to play quietly or engage calmly in leisure activities.

Unfinished tasks

A child with ADHD may show interest in lots of
different things, but they may have problems finishing them. For example, they
may start projects, chores, or homework, but move on to the next thing that
catches their interest before finishing.

Lack of focus

A child with ADHD may have trouble paying
attention, even when someone is speaking directly to them. They’ll say they
heard you, but they won’t be able to repeat back to you what you just said.

Avoidance of tasks needing
extended mental effort

This same lack of focus can cause a child to avoid
activities that require a sustained mental effort, such as paying attention in
class or doing homework.

Mistakes

Children with ADHD can have trouble following
instructions that require planning or executing a plan. This can then lead to
careless mistakes — but it doesn’t indicate laziness or a lack of intelligence.

Daydreaming

Children with ADHD aren’t always rambunctious and
loud. Another sign of ADHD is being quieter and less involved than other kids.
A child with ADHD may stare into space, daydream, and ignore what’s going on
around them.

Trouble getting organized

A child with ADHD may have trouble keeping track
of tasks and activities. This may cause problems at school, as they can find it
hard to prioritize homework, school projects, and other assignments.

Forgetfulness

Kids with ADHD may be forgetful in daily
activities. They may forget to do chores or their homework. They may also lose
things often, such as toys.

A child with ADHD will show symptoms of the
condition in more than one setting. For instance, they may show lack of focus
both in school and at home.

Symptoms Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults


Adults with ADHD may have trouble managing time,
being organized, setting goals, and holding down a job. They may also have
problems with relationships, self-esteem, and addiction.

Symptoms of ADHD may change as a person gets
older. They include:
  1. Chronic
    lateness and forgetfulness
  2. Anxiety
  3. Low
    self-esteem
  4. Problems
    at work
  5. Trouble
    controlling anger
  6. Impulsiveness
  7. Substance
    abuse or addiction
  8. Unorganized
  9. Procrastination
  10. Easily
    frustrated
  11. Chronic
    boredom
  12. Trouble
    concentrating when reading
  13. Mood
    swings
  14. Depression
  15. Relationship
    problems

 

Causes of Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder

 

The cause of ADHD isn’t known. Researchers say several things may lead to
it,

·        
Heredity. ADHD tends
to run in families.
·        
Chemical imbalance.
Brain chemicals in people with ADHD may be out of balance.
·        
Brain changes.
Areas of the brain that control attention are less active in children with
ADHD.
·        
Poor nutrition, infections,
smoking, drinking, and substance abuse during pregnancy.
These
things can affect a baby’s brain development.
·        
Toxins, such as lead. They
may affect a child's brain development.
·        
A brain injury or a brain disorder. Damage
to the front of the brain, called the frontal lobe, can cause problems with
controlling impulses and emotions.

Sugar doesn’t
cause ADHD. ADHD also isn’t caused by watching too much TV, a poor home life,
poor schools, or food
allergies
. ADHD can't be prevented or cured. But spotting it early, plus
having a good treatment and education plan, can help a child or adult with ADHD
manage their symptoms.

Conclusion
Many people with ADHD live
successful, happy, full lives. Treatment helps. It’s important to pay attention
to symptoms and see a doctor regularly. Sometimes, medication and treatments
that were once effective stop working. You may need to change the treatment
plan. For many people, the symptoms of ADHD get better in early adulthood, and
some are able to stop treatment.

Sources: WebMd,
Healthline


All material copyright healthcare nt sickcare. 2017 –
2019. Terms and conditions & Privacy Policy of use. The contents herein are
for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or
other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a
medical condition. Source: This article inspired from various online articles
and our own offline experiences. The content meant for public awareness and
regular post to the clientele of healthcare nt sickcare.

Friday, 22 November 2019

11 common travel diseases For Indians | Common Travel Diseases

11 common travel diseases For Indians | Common Travel Diseases: Here are 11 common travel diseases For Indians
Time needed: 20 minutes.

Traveling is all fun and games until you pick up an unpleasant bug. Learn what’s putting you at risk and how you can protect yourself before you jet off.

Traveler’s diarrhea
If you get this, you are pretty much spending your holiday in the bathroom. Traveler’s diarrhea is very easy to get as it spreads from food and water. You will regularly see Indian sportsperson complain of loose bowels when they go out to represent the country and most foreigners who visit India also get this.
How to avoid: Wash your hands every time before a meal and it will dramatically reduce your chances of getting infections. Also stick to bottled water, freshly cooked or covered food.

Malaria
This disease spreads by the anopheles mosquito that is commonly found in Asia, South America, the Caribbean, and eastern Europe. If you feel strong chills despite the high fever, body pain and nausea, the mosquito has infected your blood. You can take antimalarial medicine to treat it.
How to avoid: Stay away from waste dumps, lakes, and open shelters especially during night time. Carry mosquito repellents wherever you go and stick to long-sle

Tuesday, 19 November 2019

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis | Symptoms Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis | Symptoms Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: What is ALS? What Are the Main Types of ALS? Signs and symptoms Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Causes of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis



Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common
degenerative disease of the motor neuron system. Although ALS is incurable and
fatal, with median survival of 3 years, treatment can extend the length and
meaningful quality of life for patients.

What Is Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease?


ALS is short for amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis. You might also have heard it called Lou Gehrig's disease, after the
baseball player who was diagnosed with it in the 1930s. A French doctor named
Jean-Martin Charcot discovered the condition in 1869.

ALS is a progressive
disease, which means it gets worse over time. It affects nerves in your brain and
spinal cord that control your muscles. As your muscles get weaker, it gets
harder for you to walk, talk, eat, and breathe.

What Are the Main
Types of ALS?

 

There are two types
of ALS;

  1. Sporadic ALS is
    the most common form. It affects up to 95% of people with the disease.
    Sporadic means it happens sometimes without a clear cause.
  2. Familial ALS (FALS) runs
    in families. About 5% to 10% of people with ALS have this type. FALS is
    caused by changes to a gene. Parents pass the faulty gene to their
    children. If one parent has the gene for ALS, each of their children will
    have a 50% chance of getting the gene and having the disease.


Signs
and symptoms
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

 

The symptoms of ALS usually
appear when a person is in their late 50s or early 60s, but it can
happen at other ages.
Progression varies between
individuals. In the early stages, signs and symptoms may be barely noticeable,
but the weakness becomes more visible over time.

What are the symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
12 Common
ALS symptoms

  1. difficulty carrying out daily activities,
    including walking
  2. increased clumsiness
  3. weakness in the feet, hands, legs, and
    ankles
  4. cramping and twitching in the arms,
    shoulders, or tongue
  5. difficulty maintaining good posture and
    holding the head up
  6. uncontrolled outbursts of laughing or
    crying, known as emotional lability
  7. cognitive changes
  8. slurring of speech and difficulty with
    voice projection
  9. pain
  10. fatigue
  11. problems with saliva, and mucus
  12. difficulty breathing and swallowing, in
    the later stages
Other symptoms
·        
Progressive muscle weakness
occurs in all cases of ALS, but this may not be the first indication of the
condition.
·        
Early symptoms often include
clumsiness, abnormal limb fatigue, muscle cramps and twitches, and slurred speech.
Symptoms will spread to all parts of the body as ALS progresses.
·        
Some people may have problems
with decision-making and memory, eventually leading to a form of dementia called
front temporal dementia.
·        
Emotional lability can cause
fluctuations in mood
and emotional response.



What is Motor
Neuron?


Motor neurons of the spinal
cord are part of the central nervous system (CNS) and connect to muscles,
glands and organs throughout the body.

 

ALS upper and
lower motor neurons

 

ALS
is a disease that affects your motor neurons. These nerve cells send messages
from your brain to your spinal cord and then to your muscles.

You have two main types Motor
Neuron
:
  1. Upper motor neurons: Nerve
    cells in the brain.
  2. Lower motor neurons: Nerve
    cells in the spinal cord.

These motor neurons control all your voluntary
movements the muscles in your arms, legs, and face. They tell your muscles to
contract so you can walk, run, pick up your smartphone, chew and swallow food,
and even breathe.

ALS is one of a few
motor neuron diseases. Some others include:
·        
primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)
·        
progressive bulbar palsy (PBP)
·        
pseudo bulbar palsy

































Where
does amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affect the body?

 

With ALS, motor neurons in your brain and
spinal cord break down and die. When this happens, your brain can't send
messages to your muscles anymore. Because the muscles don't get any signals,
they become very weak. This is called atrophy. In time, the muscles no longer
work and you lose control over their movement.

At first, your muscles get weak or stiff. You may have more trouble with
fine movements such as trying to button a shirt or turn a key. You may stumble
or fall more than usual. After a while, you can't move your arms, legs, head,
or body.

Eventually, people with ALS lose control of
their diaphragm, the muscles in the chest that help you breathe. Then they
can't breathe on their own and will need to be on a breathing machine. The loss
of breathing causes many people with ALS to die within 3 to 5 years after
they're diagnosed. Yet some people can live more than 10 years with the
disease.
People with ALS can still think and learn. They have all of their senses
-- sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. Yet the disease can affect their
memory and decision-making ability.

ALS isn't curable. Yet scientists now know
more about this disease than ever before. They are studying treatments in clinical
trials.

What Causes Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

 

Researchers still don't know exactly what
causes motor neurons to die with ALS. Gene changes, or mutations, are behind 5%
to 10% of ALS cases. More than 12 different gene changes have been linked to
ALS.

One change is to a gene that makes a protein called
SOD1. This protein may be toxic to motor neurons. Other gene changes
in ALS might also damage motor neurons.

Environment could also play a role in ALS.
Scientists are studying whether people who come into contact with certain
chemicals or germs are more likely to get the disease. For example, people who
served in the military during the 1991 Gulf War have gotten ALS at higher rates
than usual.

Scientists are also looking at these other possible causes;
  • Glutamate. This chemical sends signals to and from the brain
    and nerves. It's a type of neurotransmitter. With ALS, glutamate builds up
    in the spaces around nerve cells and may damage them. The medications riluzole (Rilutek)
    works by lowering glutamate levels and can help slow the development of
    the disease.
  • Immune system
    problems. 
    Your immune
    system protects your body from foreign invaders such as
    bacteria and viruses
    . In your brain, microglias are the main type of
    immune cell. They destroy germs and damaged cells. With ALS, microglia
    might also destroy healthy motor neurons.
  • Mitochondria
    problems. 
    Mitochondria
    are the parts of your cells where energy is made. A problem with them
    might lead to ALS or make an existing case worse.
  • Oxidative stress. Your cells use oxygen to make energy. Some of
    the oxygen your body uses to make energy may form into toxic substances
    called free radicals, which can damage cells. The medication edaravone (Radicava)
    is an antioxidant that can help control these free radicals.
·        
Researchers learn more about ALS every day.
What they discover will help them develop medications to treat symptoms and
improve the lives of people who have this disease.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Diagnosis

 

No single test can diagnose ALS,
so diagnosis is based on symptoms and the results of tests to rule out other
conditions with similar symptoms.
Tests that may help diagnose ALS
are:
  1. electromyography (EMG), which detects
    electrical energy in muscles
  2. nerve conduction study (NCS), which tests
    how well the nerves send signals
These tests can help rule out
peripheral neuropathy, or peripheral nerve damage, and myopathy, or muscle
disease.
1.       
An MRI scan can detect
other problems that could be causing symptoms, such as a spinal cord tumor or
a herniated disk in the neck.
2.       
Further tests to rule out other
conditions may include blood
and urine tests
and a muscle biopsy.

Medical problems that can produce similar symptoms to
ALS include HIV, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis (MS),
the polio virus, and West Nile virus.

Conclusion
If there are symptoms in both the upper and lower
motor neurons, ALS may be present.
Upper motor neuron symptoms
include stiffness and resistance to movement in the muscles and brisk reflexes.
Lower motor neuron symptoms include weakness, muscle atrophy, and twitching.

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